Aspen Aspen 28.8 Data Fax Driver
Telephone. FAX. E-mail [email protected] Recent data shows that aspen in the western United States has declined B. B. Percent cover forbs. A. B. C. “ IBM C33 P l6 MB RAM/ GIG HD, / Data/Fax Modem, 8X CD-ROM Drive # " 'l'oshiba P 16 MB RAM/ GIG I-ID. ;SmartLink A ;SmartLink BAV;SmartLink BR Aspen=EFX Data Fax (RPI based);FX3 Data Fax Modem; PNP Data/Fax/Voice.
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Aspen Aspen 28.8 Data Fax Driver
Growth measurements Aspen Aspen 28.8 Data Fax height, vertical growth, mass of leaves, stems and roots, leaf number and area and bud set. Chemical parameters included defensive, nutritional and structural components of both foliage and stems. Important Findings Clipping affected most of the growth parameters measured, decreasing tree height, leaf, stem, root and total tree mass and leaf area.
Clipped trees had greater vertical growth, more leaves and higher specific leaf area SLA than unclipped trees.
Deer saliva had little to no effect on plant growth response to the clipping treatment. Terminal budset was delayed by clipping and varied among genotypes but not in response to saliva application.
Clipping also affected most of the phytochemical variables measured, reducing defensive compounds phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins CTs and nutrients Nbut increasing structural components Aspen Aspen 28.8 Data Fax and lignin in both leaves and stems. Saliva had very little effect on tree chemistry, causing only a slight decrease in the amount of CTs in leaves.
In general, leaves contained more defensive compounds and nutrients, but much less cellulose, compared with stems. Genotypes differed for all physical and chemical indices, and in tolerance to damage as measured by vertical growth.
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In addition, for most of the physical and chemical variables measured, genotype interacted with the clipping treatment, suggesting that in natural stands some genotypes Aspen Aspen 28.8 Data Fax resist or tolerate browsing better than others, affecting forest genetic composition and ultimately forest dynamics. Much of this information derives from studies of herbaceous plants and insect folivores, with comparatively little attention directed toward woody plant-browser systems.
Due to fundamental differences between these modes of herbivory, however, it is unclear whether insights gained from insect defoliation translate to browsing interactions.
Browsing differs from defoliation in several major ways. In contrast to defoliation, browsing removes woody tissue, including nutrient and carbohydrate reserves Schutz et al. In deciduous systems, the timing of browsing can differ from defoliation: Furthermore, depending upon the particular timing Aspen Aspen 28.8 Data Fax browsing e.
While folivorous insects attack plants at all ontological stages and sizes, trees have the possibility to escape many mammalian herbivores via vertical growth. Compared with stems, leaves typically contain higher amounts of nutrients Hagen-Thorn et al.
Therefore, browsers face a poorer quality, less palatable food, which fluctuates in quality and quantity across seasons. In addition to the physical damage incurred by browsing, plants are also subject to herbivore oral secretions deposited at the wound site Fig. Early work on the effects of mammalian saliva on plant growth focused mostly on grasses Detling et al.
The range of effects for artificial browsing combined with saliva on woody plants includes enhanced branch production Bergmanincreased ratios of aboveground to belowground biomass Zhang et al. Figure 1: View large Download slide a mule deer Odocoileus hemionus browsing on a young aspen tree, Alberta, Canada; b saliva left on aspen leaves and twigs after browsing. The keystone roles of large ungulate browsers in determining the structure and function of forest ecosystems Bailey et Aspen Aspen 28.8 Data Fax.
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Aspen Populus species constitute major browse species in many forest systems and browsing by large ungulates often limits recruitment of these trees Kaye et al. In North American ecosystems, trembling aspen Populus tremuloides is a dominant species in many early successional and montane forests.
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Trembling aspen provides an ideal system for investigations of plant defenses and responses to mammalian browsing. The secondary chemistry of the species has been well characterized Lindroth and Hwang Previous work has demonstrated that allocation to defense exacts a cost to Aspen Aspen 28.8 Data Fax in young Aspen Aspen 28.8 Data Fax and that individual genotypes respond differentially to environmental factors such as resource availability and defoliation Osier and Lindroth, ; Stevens et al.
To better understand the effects of mammalian browsing on woody species, this research explored the growth and chemical responses of young aspen trees to browsing damage. We subjected four genotypes genets of aspen to artificial browsing, similar to that of a large mammalian herbivore, and applied deer saliva to clipped and unclipped trees. We addressed the following questions: For this experiment we used a subset of genotypes from previous studies, identified as Dan 2, PI 12, Sau 3 and Wau 1.
Micropropagation allows for the replication of many ramets from a single root source and decreases nongenetic effects analogous to maternal effects from source tissues Wright Microsatellite DNA markers verified that the genotypes were indeed unique Cole We planted the micropropagates outside into 3. This intermediate level of fertilization provides for excellent growth in aspen Hemming and Lindroth We watered all trees, as needed, throughout the experiment.
Experimental design Potted aspen trees were assembled into an experimental garden in outdoor growing arenas on the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus.
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Abstract Acclimation of foliage to growth temperature involves both structural and physiological modifications, but the relative importance of these two mechanisms of acclimation is poorly known, especially for isoprene emission responses. We grew hybrid aspen Populus tremula x P.
Growth at high temperature resulted in larger and thinner leaves with smaller and more densely packed chloroplasts and with lower leaf dry mass per area MA.